emissia.offline ART 633
Received from: V.Romanenko vladimir@VR1682.spb.edu
Vladimir Romanenko and Galina Nikitina
Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering,
Saint-Petersburg brunch of Academia of Informatization in Education
CULTIVATION OF THE ENGINEERING BACKGROUND AT THE PERIOD OF TWO FIRST YEARS OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
The skills produced in the University learning process may be divided in two large groups. The first one is connected with the studied subjects: physics, mathematics, chemistry and so on. The second group has interdisciplinary nature. This group consists of scientifical abilities and engineering skills which are produced by practical training in all theoretical and practical subjects. There is no sense to have in the starting educational period special lectures devoted to this skills and abilities theoretical foundation. Yet these abilities and skills are usualy independenty created at the period of study of the traditional subjects. That means that the skills and abilities of the second group are produced in hidden processes. These procecces have to be under teachers control and constant checking of course. This group of skills are the base of engineering background which is constant for different engineering professional lines.
The first part of our investigations was devoted to determination of main creative and engineering skills which have to be produced at the two first education years in the hidden processes. We asked a large group of teachers, scientists and engineers to give us the full list of necessary skills. We found in their answers all repeating skills and its enumeration was given to the second group of experts. We asked them if all skills enumerated in the given list were really interesteing for engineer. We also asked them to make additions to this list if it was necessary by their opinion. After this we studied recured answers once more. We have repeated this procedure for several times till new group of experts did not give the same answers as previous one. Two-three steps of this procedure were enough to find finall list of engineering skills and abilities which it is necessary to create in the hidden processes during the teaching period. This list consists of 21 items.
In the second seria of investigations we studied the typical students' mistakes. Students' mistakes in training laboratories, exercises and examination works were our object in study. The teachers are marked these mistakes at all steps of the students' work. First of all we studied students' mistakes in their laboratoty accounts. We studied this problem in 5 Universities of the former USSR. In all of them testing time was the same. Testing time was determined as the time interval from the begining of studied subject teaching. All discovered types of mistakes were divided in some base classes. In one of the Universities we studied the time dependence of average amount of the student mistakes from the begining of teaching period. So we could estimate efficiency of traditional learning technology. We studied these dependences as for average amount of summarised mistakes of different classes so for each class separately too. We have studied mistakes maden by students as at the practical exercices, so at the examinational discussion also.
As a result of our studies we have found that there are some typical mistakes classes uniform for different subjects. The main part of these mistakes was connected with the methods of results computing, results treatment, putting the results in order and estimations of theoretical limitations of experimental and computing mehtods. Some of these mistakes we have found in diploma works, Ph.D thesises and in several articles published by Universities press. We compared these mistakes with the list of necessary skills obtained by mentioned above polling process. After this study we investigated only the skills and abilities which are present in both lists.
The last seria of experiments was devoted to the study of some new learning technologies which permited us to cultivate engineering background more effective than usualy. We describe new mehods of laboratory taraining, methods of objective testing of learning process results and some new computer training programms. Several results were obtained on the base of informatisational theory of learning process.